Department of Cardiac Sciences, Libin Cardiovascular Institute, and Department of Community Health Sciences, O’Brien Institute for Public Health, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada, and Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (DSC )
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (SO)
Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (MV)
Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (DBM)
Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact and Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Population Health Research Institute and Research Institute of St. Joseph’s, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada (HGCVS).
Disclosures: The disclosures can be viewed at www.acponline.org/authors/icmje/ConflictOfInterestForms.do?msNum=M22-2234.
Reproducible research statement: Study protocol: Available from Dr. Van Spall (email, Harriet.
Corresponding author: Harriette GC Van Spall, MD, MPH, 20 Copeland Avenue, David Braley Research Building, Suite C3-117, Hamilton, ON L8L 0A3, Canada; E-mail, Harriet.
Author’s contributions: Conception and design: DS Chew, HGC Van Spall.
Data analysis and interpretation: DS Chew, DB Mark, HGC Van Spall, S. Whitelaw.
Article writing: DS Chew, HGC Van Spall, S. Whitelaw.
Critical review of the article for significant intellectual content: DS Chew, DB Mark, M. Vaduganathan, HGC Van Spall.
Final article approval: DS Chew, DB Mark, M. Vaduganathan, HGC Van Spall, S. Whitelaw.
Provision of study materials or patients: HGC Van Spall.
Statistical expertise: HGC Van Spall.
Funding obtained: HGC Van Spall.
Administrative, technical or logistical support: HGC Van Spall.
Data collection and assembly: DS Chew, S. Whitelaw.
This article was published on Annals.org on September 20, 2022.
*Dr. Chew and Mrs. Whitelaw contributed equally to this work.